Bile pigment gives a yellowish, brownish or almost black color, with yellowish foam upon shaking. Fresh blood renders the help writing my paper urine red, while the dissolved pigment gives a reddish brown, cofFee-colored or black shade.
The reddish color due rather the hemoglobin contained and the darker color methemoglobin.
A dark red color may appear if hematoporphyrin present as after the use sulphonal and certain other hypnotics.
An almost black urine occasionally passed in melanotic disease, but the color may appear only upon standing. Alkaptonuria and ochronosis may give a similar discoloration. The alkaptan reduces Fehling's solution, while the melanin-containing urine does not. A dark-colored urine secreted in cases intestinal putrefaction, peritonitis, gangrene and suppuration, due indican in excess, or certain phenol derivatives.
Normal urine clear excepting for the slight cloud mucus that settles upon standing. If alkaline, as after a hearty meal, the precipitated phosphates render cloudy. Upon cooling, urates settle the bottom, and crystals uric acid may found.
A turbidity with a peculiar essay on old custom shimmer when held toward the EXAMINATION OF THE BODY FLUIDS light seen in urines heavily infected with colon bacilli and other organisms. Pus, blood, epithelial cells, chyle and even milk added for the purposes deception may render the urine turbid or completely destroy its transparency.
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Odor. The normal aromatic odor may replaced what is the best custom essay writing service a foul ammoniacal smell if the urine decomposed bacterial infection, as in cystitis, this constituting the most important departure from the normal.
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The fruity odor acetone present in diabetes may pervade the whole room if the urine has stained the bedding. help on essays Asparagus, turpentine, cubebs, menthol, copaiba, valerian, asafetida and other substances give more or less characteristic odors. Beaction. The normal urine acid chiefly best research paper writing service from the presence acid salts, especially NaH PO. The total acidity hour specimen roughly equivalent that one or two gms. HCL The taking mineral acids and meat diet increases the acidity, while the use a vegetable diet, rich in alkaline substances, help to write a thesis statement renders the urine temporarily alkaline. Persistent alkalinity generally due decomposition in the bladder due micro-organisms, as in most cases cystitis. In general infection with the colon bacillus, the urine may turbid and the odor extremely foul and yet the reaction acid litmus paper. The giving organic acids, especially citric and tartaric, in moderate dosage does not render the urine acid, but because their being oxidized in the system carbonic acid which combines form basic salts, a lessened acidity or even alkalinity results.